Bridge Lecture for Clubs Ch5

Our chapter for today — ACBL’s Clubs Series, 1st Ed., Ch. 5 — explains how an Opener is to interpret their Responder’s bid. Responder has the option to shift to 1m/1M/1NT, raise to 2m2M, shift to 2m/2M/2NT, or raise to 3m/3M. Opener rebids according to their own self-assessment of their hand being a minimum, medium, or maximum. Both Opener’s and Responder’s bids vary due to their holding 2c, 3c, 4c, or 5c support for their partner. The Partner who first bids a suit is generally the Describer of their hand while the other Partner becomes the Decider in determining the best contract for their fit.

Objective: On their 1st bid, Opener will describe their longest and strongest suit. On their 2nd bid, Opener will pass, further describe their hand, or support Responder’s suit.

Links

  • ACBL Teacher’s Manual: Navigate to ACBL.com — teach — Resources for teachers — The ACBL Bridge Series — Lesson 5—Rebids by Opener. This is our chapter, but written from a teacher’s perspective.
  • Audrey Grant’s Bridge Basics 1: Review the sections titled “Opener’s Rebid” in Chapters 4 (Major Suit Opening Bids & Responses, pp. 82-9) and 5 (Minor Suit Opening Bids & Responses, pp. 120-7).
  • BetterBridge.blog: Download and print this lesson as ACBL Clubs Ch5 Para.
  • Brian Bankler’s Carnegie Mellon Bridge Club: See Lessons 4 (1 of a Major) and 5 (1 of a Minor) for opening bids and responses. [nb: These two lessons were distributed in previous weeks.]
  • Michael Furstner’s JazClass.aust.com/bridge: See the relevant parts of Lessons 5 (One in a Suit Opening Bids), 6 (Bidding Priorities), 7 (Bidding a New Suit), and 11 (Bidding by a Passed Hand).
  • Moti Gelbard’s BesteBridge: Practice bidding at this site. You may receive a 1-month free BeB membership by registering with this link: https://bestebridge.com/?lps=70001234.
  • Timothy LeVan: Tim’s new ebook, from ebooksbridge.com, is “What Does Partner Have? Book One.”
  • Richard Pavlicek’s rpbridge.net: See Bridge Basics, Lessons 5 (Rebids by Opener) and 10 (Bidding after a Raise).

Opener’s General Approach (p. 94)

  1. Partnership Goals: Opener and Responder seek a Golden Game in a Golden Fit.
  2. Review of Strength: Opener always has a 3-point range, either minimum (13-15 PVP), medium (16-18 PVP), or maximum (19-21 PVP). Opener shows this range on their 2nd bid. This range is dynamic, as it increases or decreases with a fit. That is, Opener’s hand with stiff singletons and doubletons is worth up to 3 PVP more if Responder validates length and strength in that suit. Responder’s hand with a fit for Opener’s trumps and a side-suit void is worth up to 5 PVP more than it was before the fit.
  3. Review of Shape: Opener is balanced or unbalanced. Balanced means no voids, singletons, or two worthless doubletons. Unbalanced includes all other hands.
    1. Balanced: An Opener who has bid 1m will shift to a 4cM at the 1-level if possible, otherwise rebid in NT. A 2nd bid of 1NT shows 12-15 HCP. A 2nd bid of 2NT shows 18-19 HCP.
    2. Unbalanced: An Opener who has bid 1m/M will shift to another long suit if possible, otherwise rebid their original suit.
  4. Describer/Decider
    1. Opener: The Opener is a Describer. If Opener has bid NT, then Responder can set the contract with a sign-off bid. If Opener has bid a suit, Opener continues to be the Describer on their 2nd bid. Opener can reverse with a medium hand. A reverse is Opener’s 2nd bid in a higher strain than Opener’s 1st bid. A reverse causes the Responder to correct at the 3-level.
    2. Responder: Unless the Responder changes suits, the Responder is the Captain and Decider. A minimum or better Responder in the 1st round has no sign-off bids, two forcing bids, and three invitational bids. The two forcing bids are 2NT (11-12 HCP) and a cheap shift (unlimited PVP). The three invitational bids are a cheap NT (6-10 HCP), a suit raise (6-10 PVP), or a suit jump (11-12 PVP limit raise). If the team is very close to game, Responder should err on the aggressive side by bidding the game.
  5. Guidelines
    1. Responder shifts to 1m, 1M, 1NT: Responder is unlimited with ≥ 6 PVP, ≥ 4c suit, waiting. Both game/slam are possible. These responses are forcing. Opener’s best bid is to support Responder’s 1st suit. Opener will show support (raise or not raise Responder) and point count (raise, jump, 2x jump). Without support for Responder, Opener generally promises one additional card for each rebid, meaning Opener has ≥ 5cM to rebid at the 2-level, a 6cM to rebid at the 3-level, and a 7cM to rebid at the 4-level.
    2. Responder raises to 2m/2M: Responder is a Minimum (6-10 PVP). Responder has skipped 4 bids, meaning Responder’s hand is too weak, too short, or too distributional to make an alternative bid. These responses are nonforcing. Responder has a Golden Fit. Responder does not want to bid again. Opener is Decider for partscore/game. Slam is not possible. Opener will pass, invite, or bid game.
    3. Responder shifts to 2m, 2M, 2NT: Responder is unlimited with ≥ 11 PVP, 4cm or 5cM, waiting. Game is likely, slam is doubtful. These responses are forcing. Opener’s best bid is to support Responder’s 1st suit. Without support for Responder, Opener generally promises one additional card for each rebid, meaning Opener has a 6cM to rebid at the 3-level and a 7cM to rebid at the 4-level. Opener should not bid past 2NT with a balanced hand.
    4. Responder raises to 3m/3M: Responder is a Medium (11-12 PVP), ≥ 4c support. Responder has skipped 9 bids, meaning nothing describes Responder’s points and shape better than this Limit Bid. Responder has fully described their hand. These responses are nonforcing. Responder has better than a Golden Fit. Game is likely, slam is doubtful. Opener as Decider will pass or bid game.

Opener’s Rebids (p. 135)

The rebids below are shown in a hierarchical bidding ladder based on Responder’s 1st bid and Opener’s revalued strength. Example hands can be seen in the Clubs’ Exercises and Richard Pavlicek’s Quizzes.

  1. Responder Shifts to 1m/M:
    1. Opener is a Minimum — 13-15 PVP (pp. 145-7)
      1. Raise Responder: Raise at the cheapest level with 4c support. See Exercise 4-2.
      2. Shift to new suit: Shift at the 1-level with a 4c suit, at the 2-level with a lower 4cm or 5cM. Do not reverse. See Exercise 6-2.
      3. Raise opening suit: Raise at the cheapest level with at least a Rule of 8.
      4. Bid NT: Shift at the cheapest level with a balanced hand and no other option. This bid shows that Opener has a NT distribution, but was too weak to open 1NT. See Exercise 6-1.
    2. Opener is a Medium — 16-18 PVP (pp. 148-9)
      1. Shift to new suit: Jump shift with a 4c side suit, but preferably a 5cM. You may reverse. Opener with a balanced hand should not bid past a side-suit 1-level 4cM. See Exercise 6-4 (an unbalanced 4cM side suit).
      2. Jump Responder: Jump raise the Responder with 4c support. See Exercise 4-1.
      3. Raise opening suit: Jump raise Opener’s suit with at least a Rule of 8. See Exercise 6-3.
    3. Opener is a Maximum — 19-21 PVP (p. 149)
      1. Jump Responder: Double jump raise the Responder with 4cM support. See Exercise 4-3.
      2. Jump shift to new suit: Jump shift a side suit with at least 4c. You may reverse. See Exercise 6-5.
      3. Jump opening suit: Jump raise Opener’s suit with at least a Rule of 8. See Pavlicek, Quiz 5-4.
      4. Jump in NT: Jump with a balanced hand and no other option. This bid shows that Opener has a NT distribution, but was too strong to open 1NT. See Exercise 6-6.
  2. Responder Shifts to 1NT
    1. Opener is a Minimum — 13-15 PVP (pp. 138-40)
      1. Shift to new suit: Shift at the 2-level with a 4cm or 5cM. Do not reverse. See Exercises 3-2 and 5-1 (non-reverse).
      2. Raise opening suit: Raise at the cheapest level with at least a Rule of 8 (eg, 5cM with 3 honors), preferably a good 6cM. See Exercise 3-3.
      3. Pass: Responder does not have a side 4cM or 3c support for your major. You have nothing more to describe. See Exercise 3-1.
    2. Opener is a Medium — 16-18 PVP (pp. 140-1)
      1. Raise to 2NT: Opener does not have NT distribution, but is close (6-3-3-1, 6-3-2-2, 5-4-3-1, 5-4-2-2, 4-4-4-1).
      2. Shift to new suit: Shift at the 2-level with a 4cm or 5cM. You may reverse. See Exercise 5-2.
      3. Jump opening suit: Jump raise with at least a Rule of 8. See Exercise 3-4.
    3. Opener is a Maximum — 19-21 PVP (pp. 141-2)
      1. Double Jump shift to new suit: Jump shift 2x with a 4cm or 5cM. Do not reverse. Do not bid past 3NT if you have a tolerance for NT. Responder will correct if Responder prefers NT or a previous strain. See Exercise 3-6.
      2. Double Jump opening suit: Jump raise 2x with at least a Rule of 8, preferably a good 6cM. See Pavlicek, Quiz 5-10.
      3. Double Jump to 3NT: Jump 2x with a balanced hand and no other option. See Exercise 3-5.
  3. Responder Raises to 2m
    1. Opener is a Minimum — 13-15 PVP (pp. 137-8): Pass. See Exercise 2-1.
    2. Opener is a Medium — 16-18 PVP (pp. 137-8): Responder does not have a 4cM. Raise to 2NT or 3m. See Exercise 2-2.
    3. Opener is a Maximum — 19-21 PVP (pp. 137-8): Responder does not have a 4cM. Jump raise to 3NT if balanced, rarely to 5m if unbalanced. See Exercise 2-3.
  4. Responder Raises to 2M
    1. Opener is a Minimum — 13-15 PVP (pp. 135-7): Pass. See Exercise 1-2.
    2. Opener is a Medium — 16-18 PVP (pp. 135-7): Raise to 3M. See Exercise 1-1.
    3. Opener is a Maximum — 19-21 PVP (pp. 135-7): Jump raise to 4M. See Exercise 1-3.
  5. Responder Shifts to 2m/M
    1. Opener is a Minimum: Opener bids the same as when Responder shifts to 1m/M (ie, like in Paragraph I.A).
    2. Opener is a Medium (pp.149-50): Opener bids the same as when Responder shifts to 1m/M (ie, like in Paragraph I.B). Game is possible if Opener-Responder are a medium-medium. Slam is possible if Opener-Responder are a medium-maximum. Due to RoNF, Opener cannot pass.
    3. Opener is a Maximum: Opener bids the same as when Responder shifts to 1m/M (ie, like in Paragraph I.C).
  6. Responder Jump Shifts to 2NT
    1. Opener is weak — 13-14 PVP (pp. 150-1): Opener has 3 options, pass with no chance of a Golden Fit; shift to another 5c suit; or raise original suit if it is a 6cM.
    2. Opener is strong & balanced — 15+ PVP (p. 151): Raise to 3NT. See Exercise 7-2.
    3. Opener is strong & unbalanced — 15+ PVP (p. 151): With two 5cM, bid 3M in the 2nd 5cM. Responder can choose the best game (3NT, 4M in 1st 5cM, or 4M in 2nd 5cM). With a good 6cM, bid 4M game in the 6cM.
  7. Responder Raises to 3m/M
    1. Opener is weak — 13-14 PVP (pp. 136-7): Pass. See Exercise 7-1.
    2. Opener is a strong major — 15+ PVP (pp. 136-7): Raise to 4M.
    3. Opener is a strong minor — 18+ PVP: Responder does not have a 4cM. Raise to 3NT if balanced or rarely to 5m if unbalanced.

Guidelines for Play (p. 152)

  • Indirect Finesse (pp. 152-3): When finessing Kx, lead low from the other hand. If 2nd Hand plays low, then play the K. If 2nd Hand plays the A, then play the x; the K is promoted.
  • Direct Finesse (pp. 153-4): When finessing AQ, lead low from the other hand. If 2nd Hand plays low, then play the Q. If 2nd Hand plays the K, then play the A.
  • Entries (p. 154): An entry is a ranking card that gives you the lead in the desired hand when you win a trick with that card. You must have more entries than needed. When you have fewer entries than needed, you will not be able to lead the cards that you have promoted in that hand. When possible, win tricks in the hand that has the most entries so you preserve the entries to the other hand.

Test of Comprehension

  1. Responder Raises Your Major Suit: Go to Exercise One (p. 160). Responder raises your 1♥ to 2♥. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? What is your next bid?
  2. Responder Raises Your Minor Suit: Go to Exercise Two (p. 160). Responder raises your 1♣ to 2♣. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? What is your next bid?
  3. Responder Bids 1NT: Go to Exercise Three (p. 162). Responder raises your 1 to 1NT. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? What is your next bid?
  4. Raising Responder’s Suit: Go to Exercise Four (p. 164). Responder raises your 1♣ to 1. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? What is your next bid?
  5. Opener Bids a 2nd Suit at the 2-Level: Go to Exercise Five (p. 164). Responder raises your 1♥ to 1NT. You shift to a second suit at the 2-Level. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? Did you reverse? Is your bid forcing on Responder?
  6. More Rebids after Responder Bids a New Suit: Go to Exercise Six (p. 166). Responder raises your 1 to 1. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? What is your next bid?
  7. Responder Jumps: Go to Exercise Seven (p. 168). Responder raises your 1♥ to either 3♥ or 2NT. How many points is Responder showing? Are you a minimum, medium, or maximum? What is your next bid?
  8. The Finesse: Go to Exercise Eight (p. 168). How do you play each combination of cards? What is the maximum number of tricks you can win with repeated finesses?
  9. Other Exercises
    1. Richard Pavlicek’s Bridge Basics: Do Lessons 5 (Rebids) and 10 (Raises). Take Richard’s quizzes.
    2. Shirley Silverman’s Elementary: Do Lesson 5 (Opener’s Second Bid, p. 26).
    3. Shirley Silverman’s Intermediate & Advanced: None.

Hands to Play, from Clubs = “ACBL Bidding in the 21st Century” and BB1 “An Introduction.”

Regardless of your bidding, please play AG’s contract and opening lead. Consider playing the hands as “double dummy” so that everyone at the table can see the offense and defense unfold. If you finish the four hands early, please use the remaining time for dealt hands

Deck Hands Declarer Dealer Bid Lead Hints
Clubs P. 170 #5-1 S N 1NT K A
Clubs P. 172 #5-2 E E 2♠ ♦Q B
Clubs P. 174 #5-3 W S 4 ♦Q C
Clubs P. 176 #5-4 N W 3NT Q D
BB1 P. 162 #22 W E 2♠ Q  
BB1 P. 170 #26 E E 3♠ T  
BB1 P. 172 #27 S S 3 ♠2  
BB1 P. 180 #31 N S 2♠ J♠  

Hints

  1. N=14 PVP. S=7 PVP. N=♠ A73; ♥ A62; ♦ AQ75; ♣ 543. E=♠ KQJT; ♥ 875; ♦ T63; ♣ AJ9. S=♠ 862; ♥ 943; ♦ KJ4; ♣ K762. W=♠ 954; ♥ KQJT; ♦ 982; ♣ QT8. N holds 14 HCP + 0LP +0DP. S holds 7 HCP + 0LP + 1DP. North (-N-) opens 1, a Convenient Minor. South (-S-) has a minimum hand with no 4cM, responding with 1NT. N has no good re-bid. West (-W-) leads the top of their ♥ honor sequence. Declarer wins the lead and tries an indirect finesse in ♣. The finesse wins a trick. Declarer has 7 tricks. Making the contract. (+90 nv)
  2. E=14 PVP. W=8 PVP. N=♠ 9; ♥ QJT5; ♦ 5432; ♣ KQT8. E=♠ A8732; ♥ A64; ♦ A8; ♣ J53. S=♠ KJT; ♥ 987; ♦ QJT9; ♣ A76. W=♠ Q654; ♥ K32; ♦ K76; ♣ 942. East (-E-) holds 13 HCP + 1LP + 1DP. W holds 8 HCP + 0LP + 0DP. E opens a 5c♠. W raises with 6-10 PVP and 4c support. E passes as a minimum. S leads the top of their ♦ honor sequence. Declarer has 5 QT and hopes to promote 3 trumps. Declarer leads towards the ♠Q, winning. Declarer concedes a trump, then claims. Making the contract. (+110 nv)
  3. E=21 PVP. W=9 PVP. N=♠ KT74; ♥ 952; ♦ QJT; ♣ T98. E=♠ AQ; ♥ AK63; ♦ K54; ♣ KJ64. S=♠ J9863; ♥ 74; ♦ A983; ♣ 53. W=♠ 52; ♥ QJT8; ♦ 762; ♣ AQ72. E holds 20 HCP + 0LP +1DP. W holds 9 HCP + 0LP + 0DP. E opens 2NT. W bids Stayman, E responds with 2♥, and W goes to game. AG bidding is different, with W not bidding Stayman and hence not right-siding the contract. Using the AG bid, N leads the top of their ♦ sequence. The lead traps Dummy’s K. Declarer loses the first three ♦ tricks. Gaining the lead, Declarer pulls trumps and finesses in ♠, winning. If S had been on lead, Declarer’s ♦K would be a stopper, but the result would be the same with any non ♦ lead. Making game. (+420 nv)
  4. N=7 PVP. S=19 PVP. N=♠ T73; ♥ K75; ♦ 743; ♣ A632. E=♠ J942; ♥ QJT92; ♦ A8; ♣ 94. S=♠ A6; ♥ A83; ♦ KQ52; ♣ KQJ7. W=♠ KQ85; ♥ 64; ♦ JT96; ♣ T85. N holds 7 HCP + 0LP + 0DP. S holds 19 HCP + 0LP + 1DP. S opens 1♦, a Convenient Minor. N has a minimum and 4-3-3-3 shape, so bids 1NT. S raises to 2NT to show points. S continues to 3NT game. E leads the top of their ♥ honor sequence. Declarer has 7 QT and a chance to develop ♦ with either a 3-3 split or the A onside. The A is onside, so the finesse wins. The ♦ suit does not break evenly. Making game. (+400 nv)

_ _ _ _ _ _

1PVP: Partnership Valuation Points = HCP + Length Points (for Declarer) + Dummy Points (for Responder). Declarer’s PVP = their HCP + their Length Points. Responder’s PVP = their HCP + their Dummy Points. All points discussed in this paper are PVP unless they are specially identified as HCP only.

Student Notes: (nb: The latest version of “ACBL Clubs Ch5 Para.docx” may be downloaded at BetterBridge.blog.)

 

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