Bridge Lecture for Clubs Ch6

Our chapter for today — ACBL’s Clubs Series, 1st Ed., Ch. 6 — explains how a Responder rebids. Opener has bid twice. On Opener’s 1st bid, Responder may have learned whether Opener has a balanced or unbalanced hand. We say “may” because an Opener with a balanced 13-15 HCP, 18-19 HCP, or 22+ HCP would have opened with a suit. On Opener’s 2nd bid, Responder confirms whether Opener was unbalanced, and learns Opener’s points within a 3-point range. Responder is now ready to stop in partscore, force to game, or force to slam. Responder makes the appropriate rebids to stop or force.

Objective: On their 1st bid, Responder will describe their longest and strongest suit. On their 2nd bid, Responder will pass, further describe their hand, or support Opener’s suit.

Links

  • ACBL Teacher’s Manual: Navigate to ACBL.com ? teach ? Resources for teachers ? The ACBL Bridge Series ? Lesson 6—Rebids by Responder. This is our chapter, but written from a teacher’s perspective.
  • Audrey Grant’s Bridge Basics 1: This was our Spring 2017 textbook. Review the sections titled “Responder’s Rebid” in Chapters 4 (Major Suit Opening Bids & Responses, pp. 89-90) and 5 (Minor Suit Opening Bids & Responses, p. 128).
  • BetterBridge.blog: Download and print this lesson as ACBL Clubs Ch6 Para.
  • Brian Bankler’s Carnegie Mellon Bridge Club: See Lessons 4 (1 of a Major) and 5 (1 of a Minor) for opening bids and responses. [nb: These two lessons were distributed in previous weeks.]
  • Michael Furstner’s JazClass.aust.com/bridge: See Section 6 (Second Bids by Responder) of Lesson 5 (One in a Suit Opening Bids).
  • Moti Gelbard’s BesteBridge: Practice bidding at this site. You may receive a 1-month free BeB membership by registering with this link: https://bestebridge.com/?lps=70001234.
  • Richard Pavlicek’s rpbridge.net: None this week.

Responder’s General Approach (p. 180): Responder always bids after Opener; hence Responder knows more about Opener’s hand than Opener knows about Responder’s hand. After two bids by Opener, Responder should know whether to stop, invite, or force. Responder is the Captain in setting the contract.

Responder’s Rebids

The rebids below are shown in a hierarchical bidding ladder based on Opener’s 2nd bid, Responder’s strength, and Responder’s assessment of the partnership’s fit.

  1. Opener is a Minimum (13-15 PVP)
    1. Responder is a Minimum — 6-10 PVP (p. 183): Contract will be partscore.
      1. Pass (Sign-off): Opener has re-bid 1NT (ie, Opener has a NT hand, but was too weak to open 1NT), made a non-reversal in a 3rd suit (ie, Opener has not endorsed either of the initial suits, and Responder has a best fit for the 3rd suit), raised Responder’s previous suit cheaply (ie, Opener has a GF); or rebid their own suit cheaply (ie, Opener is showing extra length, and Responder now has a best fit for this longer suit).
      2. Bid 1NT (Sign-off): The partnership has bid 3 suits. Responder’s suit does not meet the Rule of 8 for a rebid. Responder does not have a GF in Opener’s 2 suits. A bid of the 4th suit would be forcing.
      3. Raise to 2m/M (Sign-off): Responder can show a probable GF in one of Opener’s 2 suits; or Responder can show extra length in their own suit.
    2. Responder is a Medium — 11-12 PVP (p. 193): Unless both partners are at the top of their ranges, contract will be partscore.
      1. Bid 2NT (Invitational): Opener has rejected Opener’s and Responder’s initial suits by shifting to 1NT (ie, a balanced hand with 13-15 HCP) or rebidding their own suit cheaply (ie, Opener is showing extra length). The partnership does not have a probable GF in any of the previously bid suits.
      2. Raise to 3m/M (Invitational): A minimum Responder would raise to 2m/2M while a maximum Responder would bid force. If Responder has ≥ 6c suit, the partnership may have a GF in Responder’s initial suit. If Responder has ≥ 5c support, the partnership has a probable GF in Opener’s initial minor. If Responder has ≥ 3c support, the partnership has a probable GF in Opener’s initial major. If Responder has ≥ 2c support, the partnership has a probable GF in Opener’s rebid suit. Note that there is no purpose in Responder pursuing Opener’s suit rather than 2NT if Responder has a balanced hand with no ruffing opportunities.
    3. Responder is a Maximum — 13+ PVP (p. 200): Contract will be game.
      1. Bid 3m/M (Forcing): If none of the initial suits has a probable GF, Responder can bid a 3rd suit that is a good ≥ 5cM or a 4th suit of any length (ie, even a void). Opener will correct to 3N or 4M.
      2. Raise to 3NT/4M (Game): If Responder has a balanced hand, Responder can shift to 3NT. If Responder knows a previously bid major has a probable GF, Responder can raise that suit to 4M. If addition, an unbalanced Opener will correct a 3NT game to 4M.
  2. Opener is a Medium (16-18 PVP):
    1. Responder is a Minimum — 6-10 PVP (p. 186): Contract will be partscore with 6-8 PVP or game with 9-10 PVP.
      1. Pass (Sign-off): Opener has shown extra length and strength by jumping their opening suit. A very weak Responder with 6-8 PVP has no possibility for game.
      2. Raise cheaply in m/M (Invitational): Opener has shown extra strength by reversing in a 3rd suit. Responder with 6-8 PVP should raise the previously bid suit with the most probable GF. A medium Opener will pass.
      3. Bid cheaply in m/M (Forcing): Opener has shown extra length and/or strength. Responder with 9-10 PVP should force to game, such as by bidding the 4th suit convention (ie, Responder does not guarantee length or strength in the 4th suit).
      4. Raise to 3NT/4M (Game): Responder must be strong, with 9-10 PVP, providing the partnership points for game. Opener has shown extra length and strength in their own hand. Responder with 9-10 PVP but no probable GF raises to 3NT, or to 4M (not 5m) with a probable GF.
    2. Responder is a Medium — 11-12 PVP (p. 195): Contract will be game.
      1. Bid cheaply in m/M (Forcing): Opener has shown extra length and/or strength. If Responder doesn’t have a fit for Opener, doesn’t have a good ≥ 6c suit, but does have a good ≥ 4c side suit, Responder keeps the auction open by bidding the side suit. Responder should not bid beyond 3NT until the partnership determines it does not have a fit.
      2. Raise to 3NT/4M/5m (Game): Opener has shown extra length and/or strength. If Responder knows the team to have a GF and GG in Opener’s m/M, Responder bids Opener’s game. If Responder knows the team does not have a GF and GG in Opener’s m/M, Opener has previously bid 2NT, and Responder has a good ≥ 6cM, Responder bids their own 4M.
    3. Responder is a Maximum — 13+ PVP (p. 201): Contract will be game or slam.
      1. Bid 3m/M (Forcing): Opener has shown extra length and/or strength. Without a probable GF in either suit, Responder can temporize by bidding a good ≥ 4c suit. Opener must bid. Responder will raise to game.
      2. Raise to 3NT/4M/5m (Game): If Opener has rebid their opening suit, Opener has a ≥ 5cm or ≥ 6cM. If Opener has bid NT, Opener has ≥ 2c support for any suit. Responder will find the GF and bid it to game, otherwise bid 3NT.
  3. Opener is a Maximum (19-21 PVP)
    1. Responder is a Minimum — 6-10 PVP (p. 189): Contract will be game.
      1. Pass (Sign-off): The partnership belongs in game. If Opener has jumped to game, Responder may pass. Opener has decided there is a GF and Golden Contract.
      2. Bid cheaply in m/M (Forcing): The partnership belongs in game. If Opener has bid 1m-2NT to show a balanced 18-19 HCP hand and no fit for Responder, then Responder with ≥ 5cM raises to 3M. Opener with ≥ 3c support will raise to 4M, otherwise correct to 3NT.
      3. Raise to 3NT/4M/5m (Game): The partnership belongs in game. If Opener has bid 1m-2NT to show a balanced 18-19 HCP hand and no fit for Responder, then Responder with ≤ 5c good suit raises to 3NT, otherwise to 4M/5m.
    2. Responder is a Medium — 11-12 PVP (p. 196): Contract will be at least game, possibly slam.
      1. Bid cheaply in m/M (Forcing): Opener’s sequence of 1m/M-2NT or 1m/M-JumpShift shows a maximum. If Responder has ≥ 5cm or ≥ 3cM support for Opener’s suits, the partnership has a probable GF. If Opener bids 4th-suit Forcing, Opener wants to explore for a best fit. Responder picks the most probable GF.
      2. Raise to 3NT/4M/5m (Game): Opener’s sequence of 1m/M-2NT or 1m/M-JumpShift shows a maximum. If Responder has their own good ≥ 5cM, Responder rebids 3M. If Responder does not have a probable fit, Responder bids 3NT. If Responder has a GF for Opener’s suits, Responder bids a suit game. Opener will correct to the best game or slam.
    3. Responder is a Maximum — 13+ PVP (p. 202): Contract will be slam.
      1. Responder’s 1st Bid is a Force: If Opener describes their hand, and Responder has a maximum, the team can reach slam. A good example might be Opener’s first bid of 1m. Responder should have a good fit for Opener’s suits if this is a slam hand. Responder should bid their lowest ≥ 4c suit. Any new suit by Responder is forcing. Opener has a chance to show a cheap 4cM if Responder stays low.
      2. Responder’s 2nd Bid is 4th-Suit Forcing: On their 2nd bid, Opener will show a ≥ 4cM. Responder should bid 4th-Suit Forcing. Responder should not jump to 3m/3M as such bids are invitational, not forcing. Opener re-bids their longest and strongest suit, in this example 3m (a non-jump).
      3. Responder’s 3rd Bid is Blackwood: If Responder can support Opener’s last suit, Responder bids 4NT Blackwood.
      4. Responder’s 4th Bid is Slam: Responder is Captain and Decider. Opener is Describer. A maximum Responder places the contract in slam.

Guidelines for Play (p. 204)

  • Techniques to Develop Trumps: Promotion, Length, and Finesse have been mentioned in previous chapters.
  • Ruffing in Dummy: Declarer gains extra tricks by using the trumps in Dummy to ruff Declarer’s losers. This requires a side suit that is longer in Declarer than in Dummy. Generally, it requires that the Opponents be ≥ 3-3 in the suit so that the Opponents will not overruff.
  • Ruffing in Declarer: While ruffing in Declarer can stop Opponents from taking one of their high cards, it does not yield an additional trick for Declarer. Declarer’s trumps are already winners.

The Finer Points (p. 208)

  • Responder Reverses or Jumps: In general, Responder forces by bidding a new suit or the 4th suit. After Opener’s two-bid sequence of 1m/M-1NT, showing 13-15 HCP, many of Responder’s bids become nonforcing. To force after 1m/M-1NT, Responder must reverse or jump.
  • Opener Reverses or Jumps: Opener forces by making reverses or jumps. These are ambiguous bids that could show either a medium or maximum Opener. Responder must bid again in case Opener is a maximum. Responder with a minimum will rebid a previous suit cheaply or bid 2NT. Opener will place the contract.

Summary

  1. Opener is a Minimum (13-15 PVP)
    1. Signoff
      1. Opener bid 1m/M-1NT; minimum Responder’s 2nd bid is a pass. Opener does not have a rebid.
      2. Opener bid a 3rd suit at the 1-level; minimum Responder’s 2nd bid with no fit is 1NT, otherwise Responder with a distributional hand raises a previous suit to 2m/2M.
    2. Invite
      1. The partnership has a fit; medium Responder jumps to 3m/3M.
      2. The partnership has no fit; medium Responder bids 2NT.
    3. Force
      1. The partnership might have a fit somewhere; maximum Responder bids a new suit.
      2. The partnership has either no probable fit; maximum Responder raises to 3NT.
      3. The partnership has a probable fit; maximum Responder raises to 4M.
  2. Opener is a Medium (16-18 PVP)
    1. Signoff: Opener has jumped; minimum Responder with 6-8 PVP passes.
    2. Invite: Opener has reversed; minimum Responder with 6-8 PVP corrects to the cheapest fit.
    3. Force: Opener has jumped or reversed; Responder with ≥ 9 PVP changes suits or bids game.
  3. Opener is a Maximum (19-21 PVP)
    1. Signoff: Opener has bid game; minimum Responder passes.
    2. Invite: None.
    3. Force: Opener has double jumped, reversed, or bid 2NT; Responder with a fit changes suits. After the partnership agrees on a suit, Responder may continue with 4NT Blackwood.

Test of Comprehension

  • Responder’s Rebid Decides What Level: Go to Exercise One (p. 210). If Opener-Responder begin 1D-1H, what are Opener’s rebids to show a minimum? If Opener and Responder are both minimums, is game possible?
  • Responder’s Rebid when Opener Shows a Minimum Hand: Go to Exercise Two (p. 210). Opener raises Responder’s 1M to 2M. Which of the hands shown for Responder is a minimum, medium, maximum? What is the expected final contract? What is Responder’s 2nd bid?
  • Responder’s Rebid when Opener Bids a 2nd Suit: Go to Exercise Three (p. 212). Opener bids a 3rd suit at the 1-level. Which of the hands shown for Responder is a minimum, medium, maximum? What is the expected final contract? What is Responder’s 2nd bid?
  • Responder’s Rebid when Opener Shows a Medium Hand: Go to Exercise Four (p. 216). Opener jumps in their 1st major. Which of the hands shown for Responder is a minimum, medium, maximum? What is the expected final contract? What is Responder’s 2nd bid?
  • Responder’s Rebid when Opener Shows a Maximum Hand: Go to Exercise Five (p. 218). Opener jumps to 2NT. Which of the hands shown for Responder is a minimum, medium, maximum? What is the expected final contract? What is Responder’s 2nd bid?
  • Ruffing Losers: Go to Exercise Six (p. 218). Only the hand that is short in trumps can develop a trick by ruffing. Declarer can force the long hand to become the short ruffing hand with a Dummy Reversal.
  • Other Exercises: None this week.

Hands to Play, from Clubs = “ACBL Bidding in the 21st Century” (370p)

Regardless of your bidding, please play AG’s contract and opening lead. Consider playing the hands as “double dummy” so that everyone at the table can see the offense and defense unfold. If you finish the four hands early, please use the remaining time for dealt hands.

The BME3 hands are from Bridge Made Easy: Book 3, by Caroline Syndor.

Deck Hands Declarer Dealer Bid Lead Hints
Clubs P. 226 #6-1 S N 4♠ K A
Clubs P. 228 #6-2 E E 3 ♦K B
Clubs P. 230 #6-3 N S 4♠ ♦Q C
Clubs P. 232 #6-4 W W 3NT ♠Q D
BME3 P. 18 #1 S N 6♠ Q E
BME3 P. 22 #3 N S 3NT ♦J F
BME3 P. 24 #4 W W 6♠ J G
BME3 P. 68 #10 E E 7 ♦5 H

Hints

  1. N=13 PVP. S=13 PVP. N=♠ QJ93; ♥ 753; ♦ K3; ♣ AK62. E=♠ 62; ♥ AT9; ♦ QJT6; ♣ J753. S=♠ AKT75; ♥ J62; ♦ A92; ♣ 84. W=♠ 84; ♥ KQ84; ♦ 9754; ♣ QT9. N holds 13 HCP + 0LP +1DP. S holds 12 HCP + 1LP + 1DP. North (-N-) opens 1♣, a Convenient Minor. South (-S-) has a maximum hand with a 5cM, responding with 1M. N raises to 2M, showing a minimum with ≥ 4c support. West (-W-) leads the top of their ♥ honor sequence which E over takes to trap Declarer’s J. Declarer wins the 4th round, pulls trumps, and ruffs a ♦. Making game. (+420 nv)
  2. E=16 PVP. W=7 PVP. N=♠ K632; ♥ 8; ♦ J64; ♣ KQ764. E=♠ J; ♥ AKQJ43; ♦ T82; ♣ AT9. S=♠ AT74; ♥ 62; ♦ KQ75; ♣ J83. W=♠ Q985; ♥ T975; ♦ A93; ♣ 52. East (-E-) holds 14 HCP + 2LP + 3DP. W holds 6 HCP + 0LP + 1DP. E opens a 6c♥. W raises with 6-10 PVP and 4c support. E raises as a medium. W passes as a minimum. S leads the top of their ♦ honor sequence, Declarer winning. Declarer pulls trumps, and ruffs a ♣. Making game. (+420 nv)
  3. N=11 PVP. S=16 PVP. N=♠ KQJT98; ♥ 62; ♦ K43; ♣ 82. E=♠ 643; ♥ A4; ♦ QJT75; ♣ K53. S=♠ A7; ♥ QT753; ♦ A2; ♣ AJ64. W=♠ 52; ♥ KJ98; ♦ 986; ♣ QT97. N holds 9 HCP + 2LP +1DP. S holds 15 HCP + 1LP + 1DP. S opens 1♥, N bids 1♠, S mentions 2♣, N jumps to 3♠, and S has the points for 4♠. E leads the top of their ♦ sequence. Declarer wins the lead, pulls one round of trumps, continues in ♦, ruffs in ♦, and claims. Making game. (+420 nv)
  4. E=8 HCP. W=20 PVP. N=♠ QJT9; ♥ J92; ♦ 973; ♣ 985. E=♠ 852; ♥ A753; ♦ A642; ♣ 74. S=♠ K64; ♥ QT84; ♦ T5; ♣ KT63. W=♠ A73; ♥ K6; ♦ KQJ8; ♣ AQJ2. E holds 8 HCP + 0LP + 1DP. W holds 20 HCP + 0LP + 1DP. W opens 2NT, E bids Stayman 2♣, W denies with 2♦, E jumps to 3NT game. N leads the top of their ♠ honor sequence. Declarer ducks for 2 rounds, wins the 3rd round. Declarer wins an A in Dummy twice, each time returning to hand with a winning finesse in ♣. Making 10. (+430 nv)
  5. S is Declarer. Lose a ♦ to the A. Regain the lead. Throw a ♥ on the last ♦. Ruff the last ♥. Pull trumps. Claim.
  6. N is Declarer. Always discard in ♥. Unblock the ♦AQ. Enter the Dummy with the ♣A. Run the ♦. Regain the lead and run the ♠. Making an overtrick.
  7. W is Declarer. Always discard in ♥. Win the lead. Pull trumps. Run the ♣. Claim.
  8. E is Declarer: Always discard in ♥. Win the lead in Dummy. Switch to ♠, ruffing high in hand. Switch to trumps, winning in Dummy. Switch to ♠, ruffing high in hand. Switch to trumps, winning in Dummy. Switch to ♠, ruffing high in hand. Switch to ♣, winning in Dummy. Switch to ♠, ruffing high in hand. Switch to ♣, winning in Dummy. Switch to ♠, discarding in hand. Claim.

_ _ _ _ _ _

1PVP: Partnership Valuation Points = HCP + Length Points (for Declarer) + Dummy Points (for Responder). Declarer’s PVP = their HCP + their Length Points. Responder’s PVP = their HCP + their Dummy Points. All points discussed in this paper are PVP unless they are specially identified as HCP only.

Student Notes: (nb: The latest version of “ACBL Clubs Ch6 Para.docx” may be downloaded at BetterBridge.blog.)

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